The World’s Top Ten Coldest Countries and Their Temperatures

The world’s coldest countries include the following: Climates are cooler in countries that are close to or at either pole than in those that are farther away. The Köppen–Geiger climate classification system classifies climates into five broad categories: tropical, dry, temperate, continental, and polar. Tropical and arid regions are hotter all year, with the latter seeing only a brief mild winter. On the other side, temperate climates are mild.

Summers in these places are pleasant to warm, while winters are mild to bitterly cold. Continental regions, particularly subarctic climates, experience moderate summers and bitterly frigid winters. In the Northern Hemisphere, continental climates exist. Both the arctic and alpine climates are extremely cold throughout the year, with temperatures seldom topping 50°F at any moment. The arctic climate is classified into two types: tundra and ice cap.

The tundra ecosystem is defined by long and harsh winters, with temperatures frequently hovering below 32°F for more than half the year, especially north of the Arctic Circle, where the sun does not rise for at least one day each year. On the other hand, the Ice Cap climate has no month with a temperature greater than 32 degrees Fahrenheit.

Due to the harshness of the Tundra environment, only some plants can thrive. As the name implies, ice cap climates are defined by the existence of ice caps. On the other hand, climate change is altering climatic conditions around the globe, with some exciting and troubling ramifications for the world’s coldest regions.

Top 12 Coldest Countries/Locations on Earth

1. Russia: is the world’s largest country, spanning two continents and extending from Europe to Asia. The vast bulk of Russia’s territory remains extremely cold throughout the year, with summer temperatures falling below zero. For a lengthy period of time, the Communist regime used the northernmost region of Siberia, which is perpetually covered in snow, as a deportation destination.

The severity of Russian winters has protected the country from invasion by standing enemy forces that frequently underestimate the severity of Russian conditions.

2. Kazakhstan: This nation, located just beneath Russia and within the Arctic Circle, was a former Soviet republic. Kazakhstan’s landscape is highly uneven, and temperatures vary significantly according to altitude. Numerous areas of land are permanently covered in ice.

In the winter, the temperature drops well below zero, and locals have developed some inventive survival tactics, such as ice fishing, to cope with one of the world’s coldest countries.

3. Greenland: The title “Greenland” should not be interpreted incorrectly, as the country is not particularly green. This vast northern continent is one of the coldest countries on the planet, surrounded on all sides by the chilly ocean. It boasts one of the longest coastlines in the world. Sub-zero temperatures are common in the summer, and depending on the season, this region experiences unusually lengthy days or nights.

4. Canada: Unlike Greenland, Canada is blessed with an abundance of vegetation and lakes, despite its far northern location. However, during the winter, practically the entire country is covered in snow, and temperatures can drop to 40 degrees below zero, making Canada one of the world’s coldest countries.

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The air is moist in this country, which helps to make the brutal cold bearable. Canada, like the rest of the northern hemisphere, experiences extremes of darkness and light. Additionally, it is one of the most popular tourist attractions on the planet.

5. The United States of America: Located just south of Canada, the United States is one of the world’s coldest countries, however not all of its regions are similarly frigid. Due to the country’s vast geographic extent, it has a diverse climate.

Northern regions are colder and receive snow in the winter, whilst southern and central regions are milder and more conducive to agriculture. The temperature in the north can drop to well below zero throughout the winter. Snowfall is also more likely in regions with a greater elevation.

6. Iceland: like the rest of the Nordic countries, is one of the coldest countries on the planet. Annual temperatures average 36.1 degrees Fahrenheit. Iceland has a Polar Tundra climate, which means it is cold throughout the year. Summer temperatures can fall as low as 50 degrees Fahrenheit, while winter temperatures average around 37 degrees Fahrenheit.

7. China: is one of the world’s coldest countries due to its severely harsh winters in the north. China’s huge land area results in a varied spectrum of climates. The Northern, North-Western, and Western regions of the country all have a continental climate, with harsh winters and mild summers.

Throughout the winter months, the northern hemisphere’s temperatures remain below freezing. China’s southern regions are significantly warmer than the country’s lowest temperature ever recorded, 58 degrees Celsius (72 degrees Fahrenheit). On December 31, 2009, a new low was recorded in Genhe, the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia.

8. Mongolia: Mongolia is another country that has dramatic weather variations throughout the year, with frigid winters and scorching summers. In December 1976, the lowest temperature ever recorded in Mongolia was at Züüngovi, Uvs Province.
Because the winters are frequently long and harsh, nomadic tribes are forced to establish camps and remain in the same location for extended periods. The temperature lowers to approximately -20°C and as low as –45°C throughout the winter.

9. Estonia: Estonia’s sub-zero temperatures are not a result of the country’s frequent snowfall. Rather than that, the nation’s wind currents are such that the monsoon breeze blows in extremely cold temperatures, permanently freezing the country.

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Winters are long, although snowfall is less than in some of the other countries on the list. Estonia is one of Europe’s most popular tourist destinations due to its affordable prices, gorgeous medieval architecture, and deep pine forests.

10. Finland: is a Scandinavian country known for its long winter season. It is located in Europe’s extreme north. The country’s yearly mean temperature is approximately 36.5°F. Snowfall is prevalent throughout the country, while the amount of sunshine varies significantly by season. Finland is also famous for the Aurora Borealis, which is also referred to as the Northern Lights. Due to the continual presence of snow, the Finnish have left an unmistakable imprint on the Winter Olympic Games.

11. Sweden: is located in Europe’s Nordic region. Sweden’s winters are renowned for their duration, severity, and numbing nature. The nation’s average yearly temperature is 36.7°F. The nation is bisected by the Arctic Circle. Winters are frequently very cold, with lows of -22°F.

Summers in northern Sweden are pleasant, but winters are bitterly cold, with months of snow blanketing the countryside. Sweden’s lowest temperature ever recorded was -53.0 °C (-63.4 °F). Temperatures were as low as -40 degrees Fahrenheit in the winter.

12. Norway: is surrounded by some of the coldest countries on Earth, including Finland, Russia, and Sweden. One of the most attractive Nordic countries in North-Western Europe, Norway is a major tourist attraction in the European region; nevertheless, the majority of tourists visit during the summer months of May to August due to the frigid winters. In 1886, the lowest temperature ever recorded in Norway was -51.4°c on New Year’s Day.


Living in such cold climates involves major lifestyle, dietary, and wardrobe adjustments, as well as physiological changes in skin color, blood oxygen levels, and facial shape that occur with age. Daily activities can vary significantly based on one’s location. Travel, food, clothing, housing, and daily jobs all differ dramatically in such frigid locations and are greatly impacted by the weather.

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