Step-by-Step Guide to Shrimp Farming in Nigeria: While the global market for shrimp is relatively large, there has been a chronic shortage of shrimp throughout the years. One explanation is that over 50% of the world supply continues to come from diverse sources. This demonstrates unequivocally that many countries have yet to embrace shrimp aquaculture to the extent that they should.
Shrimps are a high-protein source with incredible health benefits due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant qualities.
Step-by-Step Guide to Shrimp Farming in Nigeria
Nigeria currently exports approximately 12,000 metric tons of shrimp per year to countries in North America, Asia, and Europe. This is a pittance in comparison to what can be exported. Indeed, the shrimp producing industry has an annual revenue potential of more than $384 million but now produces less than a fourth of that. Nigeria is endowed with an abundance of shrimps as a result of the Niger Delta region’s huge coastal and mangrove habitats.
Unfortunately, approximately 70% of these mangrove ecosystems have been degraded by pollution and oil spillage. However, this obstacle demonstrates the critical need for privately operated shrimp farms.
This article will walk you through the process of starting a shrimp farm and contributing your much-needed supply to the worldwide shrimp market.
There are five critical measures to follow when establishing a successful shrimp farm. These include the following:
- Choosing a location
- Building your pond
- Providing food for your shrimp
- Shrimp harvesting
- Vendors of shrimp
1. CHOOSING A LOCATION
Swimming pools and other containers with a substantial depth can be used to cultivate freshwater shrimps in general; nevertheless, this is not the optimal approach for shrimp farming. Using a pond will always yield more than using a swimming pool or container.
However, there are a few points to consider before settling on the right place.
If you intend to cultivate salt water shrimp, your pond should be positioned near warm and brackish water. This is especially true if you are employing the traditional way. In this situation, a place near ocean water would be great.
If you are employing intensive farming, your pond placement does not have to be near the ocean; nonetheless, there are a few other proximity considerations. For instance, it is ideal if your pond is located near a local market or potential clients. This way, you’ll alleviate some of the stress and expense involved with transportation.
Additionally, prior to farming, you should evaluate the source of shrimp larvae and the distance between your pond and the source. This will assist in reducing the stress experienced by the animals during their transition from the hatchery to the pond.
Another critical issue is the soil and water quality. Ideally, the soil should include a sufficient amount of clay to allow the pond to retain water. Generally, there are certain needs for fish farming in terms of fertility, acidity, and the physical makeup of the soil and water.
2. BUILDING YOUR POND
When building your pond, you must decide whether you want a one-phase or two-phase pond. The one-phase procedure entails obtaining immature shrimp from a hatchery and immediately introducing them to the pond. In the two-phase system, you have a main pond and a nursery. After a few weeks of cultivation in the nursery, the juveniles are released to the main pond. Female shrimps can deposit thousands to millions of eggs in the nursery, which hatch within a day. The newly hatched shrimp is referred to as nauplii. The nauplii are fed algae and develop into baby shrimps in about 12 days. However, it is not until the 25th day that the shrimp are transferred to the pond.
Additionally, the design of your pond is determined by the shrimp farming methods you intend to use. There are three types of methods: the classic technique, the semi-intensive method, and the intense method.
THE ORIGINAL METHODOLOGY
Shrimp cultivation is conducted with the utmost care. The farm is located in the shrimps’ native environment, which is coastal or mangrove areas. In this situation, the seed stock is obtained from the wild, and the quantity of seed available is seasonally determined. The pond might be as little as three hectares in size or as vast as twenty hectares. You can stock between 300 and 5000 fry per hectare and expect an annual output of between 500 and 800 kg per hectare.
THE PARTICULARLY INTENSIVE METHOD
This is an improvement over the more traditional method of constructing a well-designed pond. The pond is rectangular in shape and is often smaller than the pond created using the traditional approach. You can farm between 1 and 3 hectares. A depth of between 0.8 and 1.2 meters is recommended. The pond system in this method includes a ditch that improves water drainage and allows for shrimp gathering during harvest. The ditch is usually diagonal in shape and is between 5 and 10 meters wide and 30 to 50 centimeters deep. During the sunny season, the ditch also acts as a haven for the shrimp. For semi-intensive farming, the stocking rate is approximately 20,000 to 50,000 fry per hectare.
SHRIMP FARMING ON A LARGE SCALE
This is the finest form of shrimp farming since it is the most financially lucrative method due to its significantly higher output than the other methods. This procedure enables you to develop shrimps of consistent size.
There is a farming technique known as Galveston or “clear water” hatchery that uses an intensive strategy to grow shrimp on a large scale. Commercial feed is added to the diet of young shrimp in large-scale hatcheries. In this scenario, they employ large tanks capable of holding up to 30 tons. Additionally, you can manufacture seed stock throughout the year and stock shrimp at considerably higher densities. You can stock a greater number of shrimp per unit area and use a much smaller pond. However, continual observation is required to ensure optimum aeration and an optimal oxygen delivery. In general, survival rates are significantly greater, and as previously indicated, yields are also higher, while production costs are obviously higher as well.
3. SHRIMP FEEDING
Generally, you may fertilize your pond. This aids in the growth of the natural algae and phytoplankton on which your shrimp feed. However, as the shrimps grow, their feed will need to be supplemented to keep up with their increased food consumption.
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Dry pellets, rice bran, diced toads and frogs, and domestic leftovers are all examples of these nutrients. These can be distributed via feeding trays, mechanical machine feeders, or broadcast feed.
4. SHRIMP HARVESTING
Harvesting is most effective when done in the evening. This is to prevent the sun from raising the temperature and depleting the water’s volume and oxygen levels. This can result in the shrimps dying, resulting in a loss of revenue for the firm.
There are a few things to anticipate if you’re new to shrimp farming. If you are using a newly excavated pond, you may see a low production the first year. This is due to an insufficient buildup of algae or insect larvae for the shrimp to feed on, but this will improve over time as the much needed organic matter gradually accumulates.
In general, you’ll see that you’ll need to be meticulous and follow best practices in order to avoid disease epidemics and ensure a rich harvest.